Wednesday, February 4, 2009

Melaleuca cajuputi

Cajuput \Caj"u*put\, n. [Of Malayan origin; k[=a]yu tree + p[=u]tih white.] (Med.)

A highly stimulating volatile inflammable oil, distilled from the leaves of an East Indian tree (Melaleuca cajuputi, etc.) It is greenish in color and has a camphoraceous odor and pungent taste.

Clade: Eukaryot
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Rosidae
Order Myrtales
Family Myrtaceae – Myrtle family
Subfamily Myrtoideae
Genus Melaleuca L. – melaleuca
Species Melaleuca cajuputi Powell – cajeput
Subspecies: M. cajuputi subsp. cajuputi, M. cajuputi subsp. cumingiana, M. cajuputi subsp. platyphylla


Melaleuca cajuputi subsp. cajuputi
Melaleuca cajuputi subsp. cumingiana (Turcz.) Barlow
Melaleuca cajuputi subsp. platyphylla Barlow

Other Scientific Names

Melaleuca leucadendron L. p.p.
Melaleuca minor Sm.

Common Names

Australia: paperbark tea-tree cajuput tree
Indonesia: kayu putih
Malaysia :kayu putih
Peninsular Malaysia: gelam
Thailand: samet
Vietnam: chè dong, tran, chi cay, bach thien tâng
English: swamp tea-tree


Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi Powell) belongs to the family Myrtaceae. Other better-known members of the family include kelat (Syzygium spp.), gelam bukit or china maki (Leptospermum spp.), mempoyan (Rhodamnia spp.), pelawan (Trifitaniopis spp.) and Eucalyptus (not indegeneous). Locally the timber of gelam is also known as kayu putih.

The species of Melaleuca occurs naturally in swamp forests between the old raised sea beaches, and is a characteristic feature of the deep seasonal swamps of the coastal alluvial flats behind the sandy beaches and the mangroves, in particular in the states of Kedah, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Kelantan and Terengganu. The trees can be easily recognised by their distinctive thick papery flaky bark that can be peeled off easily.

Description: (Flora of China)
There is 44 species in Melaleuca
Trees, to 18 m tall. Bark white, thick and soft, peeling. Branchlets grayish white. Leaves alternate, fragrant; petiole very short; leaf blade narrowly elliptic to narrowly oblong, 4-10 × 1-2 cm, leathery, with numerous oil glands, secondary veins 3-5(-7) and parallel to long axis blade, both ends acute. Flowers white, in pseudoterminal spikes to 15 cm; rachis usually with short trichomes. Hypanthium ovate, ca. 3 mm, pubes- cent or glabrous. Sepals 5, rounded, ca. 1 mm. Petals 5, ovate, 2-3 × ca. 3 mm. Stamens ca. 1 cm, in 5 bundles. Style linear, slightly longer than stamens. Capsule subglobose, 5-7 mm in diam. Fl. several times per year.

Cultivated in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, and Yunnan [Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].

In FRPS (53(1): 54-55. 1984), this widely cultivated species was treated under the name Melaleuca leucadendra (Linnaeus) Linnaeus (as "M. leucadendron"). Melaleuca cajuputi is the source of the essential oil, cajuput or cadjeput. The typical race, subsp. cajuputi, is distributed in Indonesia and Australia; a third race, subsp. platyphylla Barlow, is distributed in Indonesia (Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea, and Australia.

Melaleuca cajuputi (Swamp Tea Tree)

This melaleuca is usually a tree up to 25 m tall with a single stem, although it may reach 40 m and 1.2 m in diameter in some situations. It displays dense erect dull green foliage with grey to white papery bark. Range in latitude is 12°N – 18°S and in altitude 5 – 200 m. This is a species primarily of the hot humid climatic zone. Mean annual rainfall varies from 1300 – 1750 mm with a strong monsoonal pattern. The species grows in a wide range of situations but most stands are found on low swampy coastal plains often on heavy-textured black soils that are subject to flooding for six or more months each year.

The species tolerates waterlogged sites including those subject to brackish water. It regenerates successfully in Imperata grasslands, is fire resistant and has the ability to coppice and root sucker. It is moderately fast-growing. The wood is hard and resistant to rot.

  • ASIA-TROPICAL Indo-China: Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam
  • Malesia: Indonesia - Irian Jaya, Java, Kalimantan, Moluccas, Sumatra; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea
  • AUSTRALASIA Australia:- Northern Territory, Queensland [n.], Western Australia

cultivated & naturalized in south east Asia, exact native range obscure


  • TherapyOil of cajuput is a diffusible stimulant of great power, and is indicated in all depressed and collapsed states of disease where there is no inflammation; such as we find in the advanced stage of adynamic fevers and malignant diseases. It stops the spasms, overcomes the collapsed condition, and in many cases effects complete reaction.

  • The leaves yield cajuput oil produced by steam distillation has been used as external applications for: - headache, tooth-ache, ear-ache, rheumatism, bruises, sprains, contusions, chilblains, lameness, and other painful affections, the compound tincture (liniment) of camphor, well rubbed in before the fire, will be found to afford relief. The oil of cajuput and its preparations may be given on sugar, or mixed with honey, or in an emulsion, or in warm brandy and water.
  • Cajuput is a vermifuge, and may be used to destroy intestinal worms. It is antispasmodic, and is one of the most successful remedies ever employed in the painful cramps of Asiatic cholera was an established means of treatment among the older Eclectics. It is equally efficient in cholera morbus, cholera infantum, nervous vomiting, hysteria, and wherever there is depression of the vital powers associated with spasmodic action.
    It is important that there should be no inflammation present when cajuput is employed; and when it is given internally in such complaints as cholera morbus, or spasms of the bowels, care should be taken not to excite inflammation of the stomach by a too free use of the remedy.
  • In acne rosacea, psoriasis and other scaly skin diseases the oil, undiluted, should be applied to the diseased skin three times a day.
  • In toothache the oil should be applied to the cavity of the tooth on cotton.
  • In neuralgia the oil should be applied to the seat of pain.
  • It is generally used in the round for posts, poles and piling.

  • Good fuelwood.
  • M. cajuputi makes an attractive ornamental tree, can be used for shade and shelter, and is a source of honey.

  • In Melaka, the trees of gelam have been used as a road-side shade trees in low lying stretches where they cross rice-swamps, but the crown is not enough to shade wide road.
  • This cineole-rich essential oil is used in local medicines and as an antiseptic and insect repellent.

Economic importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental
  • Materials: essential oils
  • Medicines: folklore

Timber and properties

  • The sapwood is light pink-brown in colour and sharply defined from heartwood which has a slightly darker shade.
  • The timber is moderately hard, and moderately heavy to heavy with an air dry density of 720 to 820 kg nr3 (average 755 kg m y}.
  • Texture is moderately fine to fine and even.
  • Grain is straight to shallowly interlocked. The timber has been reported to be durable especially in contact with wet ground and sea water.
  • Based on the density, the timber appears to be stronger than rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) (density 560 - 640 kg m"3), light red meranti (Shorea spp.) (density 385 - 755 kg and mersawa (Anisoptera) (density 515 0735 kg nr1) but weaker than such timber as redbalau (Shorea spp.) (density 800 - 880 kg m'3), keruing (Dipterocarpus spp.)(density 690 - 945 kg nr3) and kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) (density 770- 1120 kg m-3).

The use of this timber is limited as the trees are available only in some restricted locations, particularly in the coastal swamp areas. The trees are often crooked and small, unattractive for use as sawn timber except for firewood. However, those well-shaped trees of good height can be used for poles, fishing stakes and piling works. The timber can also be used for parquet and strip flooring. When laminated, it can be used for such purposes as floor boards, stair steps, hand rails, table top and chair seat.

The papery bark has been used for caulking wooden boats.


1) Polination Ecology: (Jurnal written by Nguyen Quang Tan)
Polinater: Nypa fruticans

The submerged Melaleuca forests have an important role in the regulation of climate and the protection of wildlife and the environment in southern Vietnam. This paper studies the pollination ecology of the Asian giant honey bee (Apis dorsata), the Asian dwarf honey bee (Apis florea) and other pollinators on the two prominent plants (Melaleuca cajuputi and Nypa fruticans) in the forests. The results show that the nectar of Melaleuca flowers was secreted in the largest volume with the lowest sugar content in the early morning. Then, due to evaporation, the volume dropped to the lowest with the highest sugar content in the early afternoon. The sugar value present in Melaleuca flowers was the highest (466 μg of sugar per flower) at 10.00 h in the morning. Nypa flowers opened early in the morning, their pollen release increased gradually, reached a peak at 09.00 h and finished at sunset. The study of pollinators on the Melaleuca and Nypa flowers showed the three following forms of partitioning in the Melaleuca forests: 1. Different plants have different visitors; 2. Different visitors visit the same plant at different times; and 3. For a visitor species, time is partitioned to visit different plants.

(J.H. Kim, K.H. Liu, Y. Yoon, Y. Sornnuwat, T. Kitirattrakarn, C. Anantachoke)

Abstract: Hydrodistillation of cajuput (Melaleuca cajuputi) leaves collected from 6 sites gave different yields of cajuput oils. The maximum oil yield (0.97%) was obtained from leaves from Ban Koke Kuwae, Thambon Kosit, and Amphur Tak Bai. The oil yields from leaf samples of other sites were 0.84% from Ban Pha Ye and Thambon Sungai Padi in Amphur Sungai Padi; 0.76% from Ban Lubosama, and Thambon Pasemat, in Amphur Sungai Kolok; 0.70% from Ban Tha Se, and Thambon Kosit, in Amphur Tak Bai; 0.66% from Ban Mai, and Thambon Sungai Padi, in Amphur Sungai Padi; and 0.56% from Ban Toh Daeng, and Thambon Phuyoh, in Amphur Sungai Kolok. Cajuput oil densities from the 2 sites of Amphur Sungai Kolok and from Ban Mai, Thambon Sungai Padi, Amphur Sungai Padi were almost the same, but higher than others. Although major components were not different, the minor components varied in terms of both structure and proportion. The major compositions of both cajuput oils from Ban Toh Daeng, Thambon Phuyoh, and Amphur Sungai Kolok consisted of 49.22% monoterpenes and 46.45% sesquiterpenes, and the rest were hydrocarbons and a diterpene. Other cajuput oils obtained composed mainly of monoterpenes (more than 62%), sesquiterpenes, hydrocarbons and some unknown compounds respectively. There was no diterpene present in these oils. Since cajuput oil was locally used as insecticide, termicidal activities of all oils were also investigated.

ISHS Acta Horticulturae 680: III WOCMAP Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Volume 6: Traditional Medicine and Nutraceuticals

J.C. Doran and B.V. GunnCSIRO Division of ForestryPO Box 4008 QVT, Canberra ACT 2600Australia

Tropical melaleucas are being used to reforest the inundated, acid sulphate lands of the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. M. cajuputi grows naturally in the Delta, this species and a number of other melaleucas with potential for the Mekong Delta are described. Melaleuca spp. seed collections undertaken in northern Australia and Papua New Guinea are summarised. The problems of weediness and successful propagation associated with melaleucas are discussed. Excess seed is available for interested research institutions.

Barlow, B.A. (1986). Contributions to a revision of Melaleuca (Myrtaceae): 1–3. Brunonia 9: 163–177.
Blake, S.T. (1968). A revision of Melaleuca leucadendron and its allies (Myrtaceae). Contributions from the Queensland Herbarium No. 1: 1–114.
Brophy, J.J., Boland, D.J. and Lassak, E.V. (1989). Leaf essential oils of Melaleuca and Butcher, P.A., Bell, J.C. and Moran, G.F. (1992). Patterns of genetic diversity and nature of the breeding system in Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae). Australian Journal of Botany 40, 365–375.
Byrnes, N.B. (1884). A revision of Melaleuca L. (Myrtaceae) in northern and eastern Australia, 1. Austrobaileya 1: 65–76.
Geiger, R.K. (ed.) (1981). Proceedings of Melaleuca symposium, September 23–24, 1980. Division of Forestry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Sevices.

Jasminum sambac

Taxon: Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton
Jasminum Family: Oleaceae tribe: Jasmineae.

Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Oleaceae – Olive family
Jasminum L. – jasmine
Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton – Arabian jasmine

Nyctanthes sambac L. (basionym)
Nyctanthes undulata L.

Common names:
Arabian jasmine (Source:
World Econ Pl )
Melor (Peninsular Malaysia)
Melati (general), Menur (Javanese)
mo li hua (Source:
F ChinaEng ) [Transcribed Chinese]
jasmin d'Arabie (Source: C. Feuillet, p.c.) [French]
bogarim (Source:
Dict Rehm ) [Portuguese]
jasmim (Source:
Portuguese Dict ) [Portuguese]
jazmín de Arabia (Source:
Dict Rehm ) [Spanish]


  • Since ancient times Jasmine has been thought of as the 'queen of flowers'. The name Jasmine is derived from the Persia 'yasmin', meaning a fragrant flower. It's also a Persian girl name.
  • It was said that a Chinese emperor of the Sung dynasty (960-1279 AD) had Jasmine in his palace grounds so he could enjoy its fragrance. In the 1400s, Jasmine was planted for kings of Afghanistan, Nepal and Persia.
  • Jasmine sambac ("Maid of Orleand" single variety), sampaguita, is the national flower of Philippines. It is a symbol of purity, simplicity, humility and strength. Arabian jasmine makes a great container plant for the patio where its fine fragrance can be easily enjoyed.
  • In 1934 Governor-General Frank Murphy, moved by sentiment, named it a national symbol. "Sentiment has dictated the selection of national flowers either symbolical of certain national or sentiments, or reminiscent of some important historical or traditional events," Murphy explained in Proclamation Number 652. "France has her fleur-de-lis and Japan her cherry blossom," he said. "In the same way the Philippines should have her national flower."
  • On advice from the secretary of agriculture, Murphy concluded: "Considering its popularity, ornamental value, fragrance and the role it plays in the legends and traditions of the Filipino people, I hereby declare the sampaguita to be the national flower of the Philippine Islands. Done at the City of Manila, this first day of February, in the year of our Lord, nineteen hundred and thirty four."
  • Sampaguita, a Spanish term, comes from the Pilipino words "sumpa kita," which means "I promise you." It is a pledge of mutual love. In early days, a young couple exchanged sampaguita necklaces much like a bride and groom exchange wedding rings nowadays. To this day, garlands of sampaguita are offered to dignitaries and special guests.
  • Jasmine arrived in the Philippines in pre-recorded times, most likely as an item of barter or gift on board trade boats plying the South China Sea. In the Philippines a type of Jasmine called sampaga was described as early as 1698 when Ignacio Mercado, an Augustinian monk, first wrote about its medicinal use in the Declaracion de las virtudes de los arboles y plantas que estan en este libro. In translation, Mercado said that the leaves of the sampaga (which has bigger flowers than sampaguita) made a wonderful syrup to comfort the heart. The vapor was a good cure for asthma.
  • The variety Jasminium sambac, is a clustered flower of equally strong scent known in Hawai'i as the "Pikake". It was a favorite of Princess Kaiulani who was also very fond of Peacocks, thus the name of the flower pronounced as pea-cock-kay".
  • The existence of the Jasmine flower is described comprehensively in the script called Siwaratrikalpa (old Javanese literature) composed around XV AD when Adi Suprabawa governed the Majapahit kingdom, East Java. This flower was called "menur" in this script. It also stated that Jasmine has already existed in Indonesia since XV AD and this is a good flower to worship Ciwa in the new moon of the seventh month or the month of Magha. This is the holy night to worship Ciwa to wipe out one's sin. Magha comes once a year or every 420 days according to the Balinese calendar. The Ciwa worshippers use Jasmine flowers in their offerings. It is believed that this flower brings forgiveness and blessing and eventually they will be able to be united with Ciwa in heaven.
  • bushy vine or scrambling shrub
  • shiny dark green leaves
  • evergreen leaves are in whorls of three and others are in opposite pairs
  • long, angular shoots twist and twine as they clamber and sprawl over and through any support they can find
  • fragrant little white flowers
  • waxy snow white flowers are about 1 in (2.5 cm) across, borne in clusters of 3-12, and intensely fragrant
  • They fade to pink as they age
  • blooms throughout the summer - and almost continuously in warm climates
  • fruits are small black berries, but are seldom formed in cultivation
  • most common form of Arabian jasmine in cultivation is 'Grand Duke of Tuscany' (sometimes called 'Flore Pleno'), which has double flowers that look like miniature gardenias
  • grow no more than 6-10 ft (1.8-3.1 m) high and just as wide in frostfree areas; smaller when it has to regrow from roots following a winter freeze

- about 200 species of shrubs and vines, mostly from Asia, Europe and Africa. See Floridata's profiles on star jasmine (
Jasminum nitidum ), downy jasmine (Jasminum multiflorum), and three other true jasmines.

- Several other plants, completely unrelated, also go by the name jasmine. Confederate jasmine (Trachelospermum jasminoides) and night-blooming jasmine, (Cestrum nocturnum) for example, are not true jasmines, but they are sweet smelling nonetheless.

Distributional range:
J. sambac probably originated in India and was brought to Malaysia and Java around the 3rd century; since then widely cultivated throughout the Malesian region for its heavily scented flowers.

ASIA-TROPICAL Indian Subcontinent: Bangladesh; India [e.]Indo-China: Myanmar
widely cultivated

Ecology / Cultivation:

Heat Tolerance: Resistant to full sun and reflected heat in Phoenix
Sun Exposure: Full sun or partial shade
Origin: Native to India, widely cultivated in South China
Growth Habits: Evergreen shrub to 10 feet (3m)
Watering Needs: Regular watering for optimum growth
Moisture: Supply plenty of water during the summer growing season, but reduce watering in winter.

Blooming Habits:
Blooms from June to September but it can bloom all year long in the greenhouse. Flowers are ¾ to 1 inch across and are powerfully fragrant.


Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council lists this species as a Category II exotic invasive. This indicates that it has increased in abundance or frequency but has not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. These species may become ranked Category I, if ecological damage is demonstrated. Arabian jasmine cannot be recommended for landscape use in Florida and caution should be excercised when considering this plant for use in similar frostfree climates.

Invasive exotic plants are termed Category I invasives when they are altering native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives. This definition does not rely on the economic severity or geographic range of the problem, but on the documented ecological damage caused. Category II invasive exotics have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. These species may become Category I if ecological damage is demonstrated.

  • European, at the Christmas homestead, they have an Arabian jasmine in a big pot on the front porch - where they can smell its sweet perfume whenever we walk by.
  • The dried flowers of Arabian jasmine are used by the Chinese to flavor jasmine tea.
  • In India they're used in garlands.
  • The Hindus string the flowers together as neck garlands for honored guests.
  • the national flower of the Philippines and Indonesia.
  • According to Himalaya’s Herbs & Mineral, the flowers and its oil are used as aromatic and refresher to the skin.
  • The flowers are used in making perfumes and as a flavoring in tea.
  • Some varieties are used as religious offerings symbolizing divine hope.
  • The flowers of one of the double varieties ("Belle of India") are held sacred to Vishnu and are used as votive offerings in Hindu religious ceremonies.
  • Referring to famous Swedish botanist Linnaeus, he wrote that the natives of India used the young leaves and flowers to make putty, which was mixed and eaten with rice to dry scabies and other skin eruptions.
  • used as a popular garnish in Indonesia.
  • In Javanese weddings, this flower is commonly used for hair and dagger decorations for the bride and the groom.
  • Cure fevers
  • In Bali people plant this in the main temples or the family temples.
  • Jasmine is a good flower to use as a medium of praying to worship the god Iswara. The color of this god is white and located in the east.
  • This flower is also used for the big ceremonies such as Tawur Agung - the ceremony to bless the whole world.
  • In Borneo it is the custom among the women to roll up Jasmine blossoms in their well-oiled hair at night.

Jasmine tea and other culinary uses:

Jasmine tea has been made since ancient times and is said to have spiritual powers. This tea is cleverly made by resting the tea leaves strategically beside the powerfully scented Jasmine flowers. The scent is then used in the leaves capturing its essence to create an aromatic affair. In Asia the flowers are used to scent not only teas but desserts as well. Jasmine tea is the best tea is made with Maid of Orleans (single flower) variety. Pick up fully open flowers and leave them in a cup with hot water for 15-30 min. The extract is added to tea or taken pure. Try it yourself.
The scenting technique of the green tea belongs to Chinese Sung dynasty of the 13th century and consists in blending a few leaves of non-fermented tea with Jasmine flowers for some hours at night, when they release their essential oils.
Jasmine chocolate of the Grand Duke of Tuscany
· 10lb roasted, crushed cocoa beans
· Jasmine flowers
· 8lb sugar
· 3oz vanilla pods
· 4oz cinnamon
· 1/12 oz ambergris
Layer the Jasmine and the cocoa. Leave for 24 hours, then mix and add more layers. Repeat 10 times. Add the remaining ingredients and grind together.


  • The Chinese, Arabians and Indians used Jasmine medicinally, as an aphrodisiac and for ceremonial purposes.
  • The root is used in China to treat headaches, insomnia, and pain due to dislocated joints and broken bones; it is reported to have anesthetic properties.Several Jasminium species have been used in cancers.
  • Aroma-therapists find the Jasmine flower an antidepressant and relaxing herb which is said to help with dry or sensitive skin and tiredness. In vapor therapy Jasmine oil can be useful for addiction, depression, nervousness, coughs, relaxation and tension.
  • Jasmine oil can be used as a blended massage oil or diluted in the bath for almost everything: addiction, postnatal depression, relaxation, muscle pain, coughs, tension, stress and nervousness.
  • as base cream or lotion for dry or greasy and sensitive skin, as well as assisting with stretch marks and scars.
  • In Borneo young Jasmine leaf is boiled and the infusion is taken to treat gallstones. Root is boiled and the infusion to treat diabetes mellitus.

Other medical uses of Jasmine sambac:
· Abdomen - China

· Anesthetic - China
· Anodyne - China
· Conjunctivitis - China
· Dysentery - China

· Fracture - China
· Insomnia -China

· Sedative - China
· Sore - China
· Tumor - China

· Headache - China, Malaysia, Iraq

· Antiemmenagogueue - Samoa

· Asthma - Phillipines

· Dermatosis - Malaysia · Collyrium - Iraq, Malaysia · Fever - Iraq
· Sapraemia - Malaysia · Decongestant - Iraq, Malaysia · Lotion - Iraq
· Venereal – Malaysia

· Lactifuge - Asia · Tumor (Breast) - India
· Skin - Asia

Traditional Uses: (commonly use by Indonesian)
· Flowers: reduce fever and swollen eyes (tumbuk halus,tampal pada dahi)
: Bees sting (ramas & tampalkan pada tempat sengatan)
· Leaf : Sesak Nafas(10 daun melati+3 gelas air + garam ,rebus hingga jadi 2 cawan & minum),
: Acne (10 helai+belerang diramas dgn 2 sudu air limau nipis,sapukan)

Jasmine oil:

  • sweet, exotic and rich floral smell
  • deep orange-brown in color
  • Jasmine small white star-shaped flowers picked at night when the aroma is most intense.
  • France, Italy, Morocco, Egypt, China, Japan and Turkey produce the best oil.
  • one of the most expensive scents in the world costing upwards of $1,500-3,000 a pound.
  • In manufacturing, Jasmine oil is produced as a 'concrete' by solvent extraction, and an absolute is obtained from the concrete by separation with alcohol, and an essential oil is produced off the absolute by steam distillation.
  • The main chemical components of Jasmine oil are: Benzyl, Nerol, Terpineol, Linalyl acetate, Methyl anthranilate, Jasmone and Farnesol.

Economic importance:

Food additives: flavoring (for "jasmine tea" fide Baileya 13:157. 1965; F China; Eur Gard F)
Environmental: ornamental (fide
Materials: essential oils (fide
Wealth India RM 5:290. 1959; Flower Oils; Pl Res SEAs 12(1):319. 1999)
Medicines: folklore (fide
F ChinaEng; Pl Res SEAs 12(1):319. 1999)

Green, P. S. 1965. Studies in the genus Jasminum III: the species in North America. Baileya 13:157.
Matthew, K. M. 1983. The flora of the Tamilnadu Carnatic. (F TamilC)
Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970–. Flora of [West] Pakistan. (F Pak)
Pajaujis Anonis, D. 1993. Flower oils and floral compounds in perfumery. (Flower Oils)
Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. (Dict Rehm)
Walters, S. M. et al., eds. 1986–. European garden flora. (Eur Gard F)
Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–.
Flora of China (English edition). (F ChinaEng)